A Humble Shepherd David’s Anointing
Text: 1 Samuel Chapter 16, 1 Chronicles 9
In our last lesson we saw that the kingdom of King Saul was rejected but we know that Saul will finish his reign until the time of his death and we know that to be 40 years.
Act 13:20 And after that he gave unto them judges about the space of four hundred and fifty years, until Samuel the prophet.
Act 13:21 And afterward they desired a king: and God gave unto them Saul the son of Cis, a man of the tribe of Benjamin, by the space of forty years.
After the death of Joshua, Israel had judges for 450 years and then the time of Samuel as judge and then Saul ruled for 40 years until the time of David.
Saul reigned from 1051-1011 BC.
David was born 1041 BC.
We can see that Saul had ruled for nearly 30 years before our lesson takes place today.
It is believed that David was anointed by Samuel in 1023 BC.
Thus David would have been about 18 years old.
*****1Sa 16:1 And the LORD said unto Samuel, How long wilt thou mourn for Saul, seeing I have rejected him from reigning over Israel? fill thine horn with oil, and go, I will send thee to Jesse the Bethlehemite: "for I have provided me a king" among his sons.
Chapter 16 is a turning point in our story of the first kings of Israel. We will see the process that God uses to remove Saul as Israel’s first king and replace him with David as Israel’s second king.
1) We have already seen where God said He would raise up a man after His Own heart.
1Sa 13:14 But now thy kingdom shall not continue: "the LORD hath sought him a man after his own heart", and the LORD hath commanded him to be captain over his people, because thou hast not kept that which the LORD commanded thee.
2) The Bible tells us that God was over joyed that He had found such a man.
Psa 89:20 I have found David my servant; with my holy oil have I anointed him:
Psa 89:21 "With whom my hand shall be established": mine arm also shall strengthen him.
3) AND, God had now appointed His servant David to be captain over Israel.
1Sa 13:14 But now thy kingdom shall not continue: the LORD hath sought him a man after his own heart, and "the LORD hath commanded him to be captain over his people", because thou hast not kept that which the LORD commanded thee.
4) And now in our verse God says, He has provided His king.
The Prophesy tell us:
Isa 11:1 And there shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, and a Branch shall grow out of his roots:
That "rod" is God’s absolute authority on this Earth.
That "rod" will bloom (as the rod of Aaron) into new life, into God’s plan of salvation through His Son.
That "stem" was David, Israel’s new beginning.
We know that "Branch" as the Lord Jesus Christ, the world’s new beginning!
Jer 23:5 Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will raise unto David a righteous Branch, and a King shall reign and prosper, and shall execute judgment and justice in the earth.
And for the Church.
Zec 6:12 And speak unto him, saying, Thus speaketh the LORD of hosts, saying, Behold the man whose name is The BRANCH; and he shall grow up out of his place, and he shall build the temple of the LORD:
But before these things take place we see Samuel is still mourning over the demise of King Saul. Samuel was getting older and he was still afraid that his nation, Israel, would suffer from God’s rejection of Saul.
Samuel had already been rejected and his sons had been rejected and Samuel had already broken his own relationship with King Saul.
BUT, God will not allow us to dwell on "what could have been" because He knows what is best for us all!
There are two things we should always remember:
1) Pro 3:5 Trust in the LORD with all thine heart; and lean not unto thine own understanding.
Pro 3:6 In all thy ways acknowledge him, and he shall direct thy paths.
2) Isa 26:4 Trust ye in the LORD for ever: for in the LORD JEHOVAH is everlasting strength:
God’s wisdom cannot ever fail!
And, Our God has no weakness in Him at all!
There is a time to mourn but now was not the time for Samuel to mourn, he still had a work to do for the Lord!
*****1Sa 16:2 And Samuel said, How can I go? if Saul hear it, he will kill me. And the LORD said, Take an heifer with thee, and say, I am come to sacrifice to the LORD.
1Sa 16:3 And call Jesse to the sacrifice, and I will shew thee what thou shalt do: and thou shalt anoint unto me him whom I name unto thee.
Bethlehem was the home of Jesse but little Bethlehem already had a great significance to all of Israel.
Jacob had buried Rachel the mother of Joseph and Benjamin very near Bethlehem.
Ruth had met and married Boaz in Bethlehem and raised up Obed the father of Jesse and grandfather of David.
David would soon make Bethlehem a famous place.
"Bethlehem" means "the house of bread" and we know that the "Bread of Life" would come forth from Bethlehem.
Joh 6:51 I am the living bread which came down from heaven: if any man eat of this bread, he shall live for ever: and the bread that I will give is my flesh, which I will give for the life of the world.
Samuel was to put all things aside because God had said "fill thine horn with oil".
Samuel had only taken a "vial of oil" to anoint Saul but now would take "a horn of oil" to anoint David.
A horn would be like comparing an elephants tooth to a small flask.
This shows the abundance of gifts God would bestow on David as compared to that of Saul.
Since the Ark of the Covenant had not been returned to Shiloh the worship at the Tabernacle had not been restored, so Samuel as God’s prophet, offered sacrifices when he made his visits, so the people of Israel would not neglect the worship of the Lord.
God told Samuel to do this and it would not arouse any suspicion from the people nor from King Saul.
This was also for the confidence of Samuel, as his faith was lacking at this time!
*****1Sa 16:4 And Samuel did that which the LORD spake, and came to Bethlehem. And the elders of the town trembled at his coming, and said, Comest thou peaceably?
In chapter 12 we witnessed as Samuel had called on the Lord to bring thunder and lightning which could have or maybe even did destroy some or all of the wheat harvest at least at Gilgal.
These elders trembled because they knew that Samuel had a direct connection into the throne room of God.
The world would tremble now if the Church would get on it’s knees and bring back Holy Ghost Power!
The Bible says:
Isa 33:14 The sinners in Zion are afraid; fearfulness hath surprised the hypocrites. Who among us shall dwell with the devouring fire? who among us shall dwell with everlasting burnings?
If these of Bethlehem had had no faults then they would have had no reason to fear the man of God!
But Samuel was no longer their judge!
*****1Sa 16:5 And he said, Peaceably: I am come to sacrifice unto the LORD: sanctify yourselves, and come with me to the sacrifice. And he sanctified Jesse and his sons, and called them to the sacrifice.
Peaceably means Samuel came as a friend to this city.
Samuel carried no ill will toward his nation because they had demanded a king.
Samuel said "sanctify yourselves" or wash yourselves and your clothes and come with me to the sacrifice.
It does not say that they came.
It does say that Jesse came with seven of his sons.
*****1Sa 16:6 And it came to pass, when they were come, that he looked on Eliab, and said, Surely the LORD’S anointed is before him.
1Sa 16:7 But the LORD said unto Samuel, Look not on his countenance, or on the height of his stature; because I have refused him: for the LORD seeth not as man seeth; for man looketh on the outward appearance, but the LORD looketh on the heart.
1Sa 16:8 Then Jesse called Abinadab, and made him pass before Samuel. And he said, Neither hath the LORD chosen this.
1Sa 16:9 Then Jesse made Shammah to pass by. And he said, Neither hath the LORD chosen this.
1Sa 16:10 Again, Jesse made seven of his sons to pass before Samuel. And Samuel said unto Jesse, The LORD hath not chosen these.
Eliab means "God is the Father", he was the eldest son, Samuel liked Eliab but he was rejected.
Abinadab means "noble and willingness", he was the second born son but also rejected.
Shammah means "astonishment", he was the third born son but also rejected along with four more of the sons of Jesse.
God has a simple rule that He always uses:
"for the LORD seeth not as man seeth; for man looketh on the outward appearance, but the LORD looketh on the heart"
According to the Word of God, the Bible, is not only the seat of all "spiritual activity" but for all operations of human life.
In fact "Heart" and "Soul" are sometimes interchanged:
Deu 6:5 And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might.
Deu 6:6 And "these words", which I command thee this day, shall be in thine heart:
"These words" refer to the Word of God.
There was a scribe in the days of Jesus that knew what the Word of God teaches, as he said these words:
Mar 12:33 And to love him with all the heart, and with all the understanding, and with all the soul, and with all the strength, and to love his neighbour as himself, is more than all whole burnt offerings and sacrifices.
To sacrifice to and for the Lord is not near as important as to "Love The Lord With All Our Heart".
These are the ones that the Lord chooses to be on His team!
*****1Sa 16:11 And Samuel said unto Jesse, Are here all thy children? And he said, There remaineth yet the youngest, and, behold, he keepeth the sheep. And Samuel said unto Jesse, Send and fetch him: for we will not sit down till he come hither.
1Sa 16:12 And he sent, and brought him in. Now he was ruddy, and withal of a beautiful countenance, and goodly to look to. And the LORD said, Arise, anoint him: for this is he.
Now we get to meet David. This the first time David is mentioned by his name which means "beloved".
David is actually mentioned more times than even Abraham and Moses and any other Old Testament person.
The biography of David takes up 62 chapters in the Bible and is only surpassed by that of the Lord Jesus Christ.
David is described as:
1) Ruddy. This means by the looks of his skin, David was in perfect health. If we remember back to Adam, the name Adam also means "ruddy".
2) Beautiful countenance. This means David was well proportioned in his body. David had the looks of a real man and not some wimp but not overly proportioned.
3) Goodly to look to. This means to the ladies that David was a handsome man and desirable to look upon.
4) This is he. The Lord’s choice had already been made. This was the man God had chosen to be the next king of Israel.
Verse 1 says: "for I have provided me a king among his sons" God said "this is he"!
The Bible teaches us with these words:
Psa 78:70 He chose David also his servant, and took him from the sheepfolds:
Psa 78:71 From following the ewes great with young he brought him to feed Jacob his people, and Israel his inheritance.
While the family of Jesse was gathered for the sacrifice they gave little thought to David and he was left in the field with the sheep.
We begin to see that David is a "type" of Christ.
The Bible says:
Heb 13:20 Now the God of peace, that brought again from the dead our Lord Jesus, "that great shepherd of the sheep", through the blood of the everlasting covenant,
Again the Bible says:
Psa 100:3 Know ye that the LORD he is God: it is he that hath made us, and not we ourselves; we are his people, "and the sheep of his pasture".
While the world goes its own way, our God concentrates on His sheep!
Note: There is no mention of David’s musical talent at this time. David played his music before the sheep before he was allowed to play before King Saul.
*****1Sa 16:13 Then Samuel took the horn of oil, and anointed him in the midst of his brethren: and the Spirit of the LORD came upon David from that day forward. So Samuel rose up, and went to Ramah.
In the Bible, only prophets, priests and kings, were anointed and this anointing had to be performed by a person authorized by the Lord.
Samuel had God’s authorization!
In the Bible "oil" represents "a type" of the Holy Spirit.
The Hebrew word "Messiah" and the Greek word "Christ" both mean "anointed".
Earlier, the Spirit had come upon Saul in a like manner.
This signals "to us" that David has replaced Saul as God’s chosen to be king of Israel.
And we need to understand that without the power of the Spirit of God, we are helpless when it comes to serving Him, to be in His will and to Glorify Jesus Christ.
This anointing of David preceded any action upon King Saul.
*****1Sa 16:14 But the Spirit of the LORD departed from Saul, and an evil spirit from the LORD troubled him.
1Sa 16:15 And Saul’s servants said unto him, Behold now, an evil spirit from God troubleth thee.
This was a tragic day in the life of Saul but he had brought it upon himself.
That word departed means "to keep away from"!
Saul turned off the Spirit of God, so God took away those things that would enable him to carry out God’s work as king.
The Bible tells us:
1Th 5:19 Quench not the Spirit.
Isa 63:10 But they rebelled, and vexed his holy Spirit: therefore he was turned to be their enemy, and he fought against them.
If the Holy Spirit is not within you, then He is your enemy!
In the Old Testament, the Holy Spirit came and went from each person in accordance to God’s purpose and their obedience to Him.
BUT, Because of Jesus these things are different now:
Joh 14:16 And I will pray the Father, and he shall give you "another Comforter, that he may abide with you for ever";
Joh 14:17 Even the Spirit of truth; whom the world cannot receive, because it seeth him not, neither knoweth him: but ye know him; "for he dwelleth with you, and shall be in you".
To those that accept the Lord Jesus Christ as Lord, the Spirit abides within us forever!
Something we should remember is this:
1Co 14:33 For God is not the author of confusion, but of peace, as in all churches of the saints.
God is not the God of disorder but the God of peace!
1) God will punish sin and Saul had turned away from the Lord in disobedience. God loves all people, including Saul and the Lord will not punish sin unjustly!
A loving God does what is best at "all" times!
2) This passage denotes that through His Spirit, God has chosen David and rejected Saul.
3) This "evil spirit" was probably not a demon or something frightening, because it did not bring fear to Saul’s servants and we will later find out that this spirit could be soothed with the right kind of music.
4) This scripture also shows us that it is God that controls the history of man and not man himself.
5) Saul’s sinful life has brought "a great depression" into his life. When depression is in the extreme it can sometimes be shown by partial insanity and real grief.
We will soon see that Saul will become jealous, irritable, vindictive, and subject to fits.
Without the Holy Spirit we are all at the will of Satan!
The Bible says:
2Ti 2:26 And that they may recover themselves out of the snare of the devil, "who are taken captive by him at his will".
The Bible also says:
Mat 12:43 When the unclean spirit is gone out of a man, he walketh through dry places, seeking rest, and findeth none.
Mat 12:44 Then he saith, I will return into my house from whence I came out; and when he is come, he findeth it empty, swept, and garnished.
Mat 12:45 Then goeth he, and taketh with himself seven other spirits more wicked than himself, and they enter in and dwell there: and the last state of that man is worse than the first. Even so shall it be also unto this wicked generation.
When the protective hand of God is overshadowed by His hand of discipline, the true character of Saul will be revealed.
*****1Sa 16:16 Let our lord now command thy servants, which are before thee, to seek out a man, who is a cunning player on an harp: and it shall come to pass, when the evil spirit from God is upon thee, that he shall play with his hand, and thou shalt be well.
1Sa 16:17 And Saul said unto his servants, Provide me now a man that can play well, and bring him to me.
1Sa 16:18 Then answered one of the servants, and said, Behold, I have seen a son of Jesse the Bethlehemite, that is cunning in playing, and a mighty valiant man, and a man of war, and prudent in matters, and a comely person, and the LORD is with him.
Samuel was probably the only one that knew that God had chosen David to replace Saul as king.
Saul, himself, already knew that he and his heritage had been rejected of God which led to his depression!
What we know is that in creating mankind, God made man with a sensitive heart. A heart that can feel emotions depending on the circumstances he experiences.
We also all know that music is a powerful influence in our lives and it was no different in this time of Saul.
David was first introduced to Saul to help him in his great depression.
What was not mentioned in God’s selection of David was his great talent for music.
In fact David influenced much of the music of that time and much of it is recorded in the Bible.
While David was still a teenager he was already well known in Israel for his music. Even the kings servants already knew about David.
David played many musical instruments himself and 59 times we see the words "A Psalm of David" in the Book of Psalms or the Book of Songs.
77 Psalms are thought to be the work of David.
It is also said that it was David who presented the songs of Moses, and Joshua, and many others into the scriptures and into the Book of Psalms.
David made music a part of his life throughout all his days and even passed this on to Solomon who made music a great part of the Temple worship.
Music is still, and should be a great part of our worship services!
Some of David’s musical talent was passed to his son Solomon who was also a songwriter who wrote more than 1000 songs:
1Ki 4:32 And he spake three thousand proverbs: "and his songs were a thousand and five".
It does not say that these songs were recorded in the scriptures.
But even before this David was to show King Saul how well he could play musical instruments!
That phrase "play well" means that David could touch that harp in such a way that he did not make noise but he could play an arrangement that may even have been his own!
It means David’s music was not only pleasing to the ear but one would say it was beautiful music!
But the real key to David’s success is in verse 18 which simply says:
"the Lord is with him"
*****1Sa 16:19 Wherefore Saul sent messengers unto Jesse, and said, Send me David thy son, which is with the sheep.
Here again we can see a "type" of Christ.
No one wanted to be a shepherd, it was the most hated of jobs.
So David was called from a place of contempt, as also Jesus Christ came from a humble walk of life.
The Bible says
Mar 6:3 "Is not this the carpenter", the son of Mary, the brother of James, and Joses, and of Juda, and Simon? and are not his sisters here with us? "And they were offended at him".
But as David was also a shepherd Jesus says:
Joh 10:11 I am the good shepherd: the good shepherd giveth his life for the sheep.
And as David was first anointed by God and later by the people, Jesus Christ was anointed at His baptism and at His Second Coming, AND, He will be confirmed by His brethren, the Jews and then all nations.
Isa 45:25 In the LORD shall all the seed of Israel be justified, and shall glory.
*****1Sa 16:20 And Jesse took an ass laden with bread, and a bottle of wine, and a kid, and sent them by David his son unto Saul.
With Jesse’s choice of gifts to Saul, he was showing Saul that he came at the request of the king and not because they were in need of the kings support.
An ass "laden with bread" would mean more bread than one man could eat in one day.
But we cannot miss what is represented here:
1) The Bread, more than a man can eat, means The Bread of Life:
Joh 6:35 And Jesus said unto them, I am the bread of life: he that cometh to me shall never hunger; and he that believeth on me shall never thirst.
2) The wine, the Blood of the New Covenant:
Mar 14:24 And he said unto them, This is my blood of the new testament, which is shed for many.
3) The kid, The Sacrifice of the Lamb of God:
Joh 1:29 The next day John seeth Jesus coming unto him, and saith, Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world.
We should always see Jesus in these things!
*****1Sa 16:21 And David came to Saul, and stood before him: and he loved him greatly; and he became his armourbearer.
Saul’s servants saw this as a means to cause peace in Saul when that evil spirit was at work.
Saul saw this as one of his subjects committing himself to the welfare of the king.
God saw this as a training session for David. David was placed in circumstances in which he might learn the art of warfare, the works of government, and to enlarge his knowledge of human character.
It would not be long before the love of Saul would be changed into envy and fear of David!
*****1Sa 16:22 And Saul sent to Jesse, saying, Let David, I pray thee, stand before me; for he hath found favour in my sight.
Though Saul’s character was always in question, we see the character of David as a faithful servant who tries to help the king and Saul shows his gratitude at this time to Jesse.
*****1Sa 16:23 And it came to pass, when the evil spirit from God was upon Saul, that David took an harp, and played with his hand: so Saul was refreshed, and was well, and the evil spirit departed from him.
Because of David’s musical talents, Saul found relief from his great depression.
It is probable that the harp mentioned here was more like what we call a lyre.
A lyre is a stringed instrument which is a kind of harp but more easily carried from place to place.
The lyre was a vertical harp with two arms and proof of their existence extends back as far as 2800 BC.
And we can see that David played it with his hand.
This brought a wellness and a refreshment to Saul during these times and Saul’s evil spirit departed from him!
We can understand more about what happened to Saul if we look back at Job and remember that when God removed His protective hedge from around Job, immediately Satan came to cause havoc in Job’s life.
David was a cunning musician, a valiant man, a man of war, a prudent man and with all that, he was a handsome man.
He was the perfect choice for Saul and for Israel at this time!
BUT, the Lord Jesus Christ is our perfect choice for eternity!